• Users Online: 318
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
CASE REPORT
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 187-190

Malignant perforation of sigmoid colon in long-standing ulcerative colitis


Department of GI Surgery, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India

Date of Submission09-Jun-2019
Date of Acceptance17-Jul-2019
Date of Web Publication11-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
G K Adithya
Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, Delhi - 110 076
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/am.am_33_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Chronic ulcerative colitis (UC) is a risk factor for malignancy in longterm disease process. Obstruction, perforation, and hemorrhage are the possible emergency situations in colorectal malignancy. A 68-year-old male with chronic UC for 18 years with steroiddependent disease (on 10 mg prednisolone daily) presented with acute pain abdomen with distention not passing stool or flatus for 2 days. Diagnosed to have perforated sigmoid malignancy, underwent Hartmann's procedure. Following the adjuvant therapy, the patient denied any definitive surgery and opted to stay on Colorectal Cancer Surveillance Programme. At present, patient's positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows pelvic, liver surface, and small bowel deposits, suggestive of recurrence or metastasis. This case report is discussed to emphasis the importance of aggressive surgical treatment in longterm steroiddependent disease and poor prognosis of perforated malignancy irrespective of pathological staging.

Keywords: Chronic ulcerative colitis, perforated colonic malignancy, steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis


How to cite this article:
Adithya G K, Madaan V, Gupta R, Jindal SP, Govil D. Malignant perforation of sigmoid colon in long-standing ulcerative colitis. Apollo Med 2019;16:187-90

How to cite this URL:
Adithya G K, Madaan V, Gupta R, Jindal SP, Govil D. Malignant perforation of sigmoid colon in long-standing ulcerative colitis. Apollo Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 8];16:187-90. Available from: http://www.apollomedicine.org/text.asp?2019/16/3/187/266774




  Introduction Top


Chronic ulcerative colitis (UC) is a risk factor for many catastrophic events. One among them is malignancy of large bowel. Data quote a prevalence of 3.7%.[1] Duration is one of the possible etiological factors in UC predisposing to malignancy, the systematic review states a cumulative risk of 3%–4.4% at 10 years, 5.9%–8.6% at 20 years, and 8.7%–12.7% at 30 years.[1],[2] Recent data indicate an incidence ratio of 2.17 and a 30-year risk of 2.1%–7.6%.[3],[4] Even though every complication of long-standing UC culminates in surgery, malignancy, particularly, affects the prognosis. Perforated tumor, in its initial presentation itself, portends a poor prognosis. It increases the incidence of local recurrence significantly. The exact incidence of perforation of malignancy in UC is not known. Here, we present a case of long-standing UC presenting as perforated sigmoid malignancy in the emergency department.


  Case Report Top


A 68-year-old male with chronic UC for 18 years with steroid-dependent disease (on 10 mg prednisolone daily) presented with acute pain abdomen with distention not passing stool or flatus for 2 days. The patient was also on mesalamine 1.2 g twice daily throughout. The presentation was associated with low-grade fever for 2 days. Abdominal examination revealed distension with diffuse tenderness. Blood report showed leukocytosis with WBC count of 14.49 103/mm3. The patient had his last colonoscopy 8 years back. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen done at presentation showed short segment of heterogeneously enhancing mural thickening (16 mm) of sigmoid colon with pericolic fat stranding, causing abrupt and near-complete luminal narrowing and shouldering suggestive of a stricture with proximal dilatation of the large bowel. Mesenteric vasculature around involved bowel segment looked prominent. Distal sigmoid colon and rectum, small bowel appeared normal. There was an evidence of loculated peripherally enhancing suprapubic collection with air foci within it measuring 5.8 cm × 3.7 cm, closely abutting the sigmoid stricture with a linear enhancing tract, arising from it and communicating with the collection pocket; however, no definite evidence of any extraluminal air or ascites was seen [Figure 1]. Suspecting tumor perforation emergency exploratory laparotomy was planned. Intraoperatively, the following findings were noted. Grossly dilated colon till the rectosigmoid junction with an abscess cavity attaching the anterior wall of the sigmoid to posterior bladder wall, with colonic wall breach when abscess pocket was cleared [Figure 2]. A 5 cm × 6 cm mass lesion in the distal sigmoid colon was noted with narrowing at that site. Pseudopolyps were seen at the cut end of the bowel [Figure 3]. Sigmoid colon containing tumor was resected, and Hartmann procedure was performed. Postoperative period was uneventful. The patient was managed in an intensive care unit with parenteral steroids. Final histopathological examination showed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltrating deep into muscularis propria and focally invading the subserosa without lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Proximal and distal resection margins were free from tumor, and no lymph node metastasis was present (0/11). Tumor, node, metastasis staging was pT3N0Mx. The patient was offered restorative proctocolectomy after 12 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (FOLFOX). However, the patient refused to undergo any kind of definitive procedure and chose to be under surveillance even after a detailed discussion about the pros and cons of both. Follow-up carcinoembryonic antigen was 3.3 ng/ml, underwent Hartmann's reversal with ileostomy with ventral hernia repair after 10 months of primary surgery. Ileostomy was reversed after 5 months for various reasons. The patient was on surveillance imaging and colonoscopy till now and remained asymptomatic with complete disappearance of colonic lesions on colonoscopy. The patient could not be freed of steroids. He was on regular follow-up with medical oncologist and being surveilled with regular CECT/positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. At present, his PET/CT shows intensely fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid (SUV max: 18.78) nodular wall thickening in the lateral and anterior wall of the rectum with FDG avid (SUV max: 16.76) enhancing nodular lesion along the pelvic floor involving the superior and left lateral wall of the urinary bladder continuing inferiorly with the prostate which also shows heterogeneous enhancement suggestive of pelvic peritoneal deposits. FDG-avid (SUV max: 10.30) peritoneal deposits are seen on the liver surface and surface of bowel loops which are new findings along with FDG-avid (SUV max: 8.80) nodular stranding at lower anterior abdominal wall suggestive of deposits [Figure 4]. In view of these findings, transurethral resection of bladder tumor was done which revealed it to be a bladder tumor.
Figure 1: Sigmoid colon showing perforated wall

Click here to view
Figure 2: Cut end of the bowel showing pseudopolyps

Click here to view
Figure 3: Loculated collection around strictured sigmoid colon with wall thickening (arrows in the upper and lower picture, respectively) and proximal dilatation

Click here to view
Figure 4: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showing fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesions at the rectum, anterior abdominal wall, and liver surface

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Malignancy is a well-known complication of chronic UC. Because of which colonoscopic surveillance is a must in these patients after 8 years of disease onset. The American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, and Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America guidelines all recommend initiation of colonoscopic surveillance after 8–10 years of disease detection.[5] This particular protocol does not guarantee the occurrence of malignancy before that period. Hence, high level of clinical suspicion will need investigations to rule out malignancy. Colorectal malignancies can present in different ways, either obstruction with or without perforation or locally or distantly advanced disease. In our patient, it had presented with local catastrophe. Timely intervention was able to salvage the patient. However, those patients who do not follow the protocol for colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance miss out on the opportunity for early detection.[6]

It is shown that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) use is protective in preventing early colorectal malignancies, suggesting its potential role as chemoprevention tool in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.[7] However, our patient was on mesalamine throughout his treatment period, still compliance is a big game changer. Long-term steroid dependence is definitely an indication for surgery. However, its role in causation of malignancy individually is not known. Long-term steroid usage is an indirect marker of unfavorable disease process and definitely earns early surgery. In our patient, he was able to cope up with steroid usage and did not ask for definitive surgery. Long-standing disease (>8 years), extensive colitis (proximal to the splenic flexure), backwash ileitis, severe inflammation activity, colitis-associated primary sclerosing cholangitis, and family history of CRC seem to increase the risk of IBD-associated malignancy.[8]

The long-term prognosis of patients with perforated colorectal tumors is dismal due to the advanced malignancy status and the possibility of tumor seedling through the perforation site.[9] Extent of peritoneal contamination determines the prognosis. In our case, perforation was contained which may contribute to long-term survival, as he completed full course of adjuvant chemotherapy. Tan et al. have published 5 years' experience of perforated colorectal malignancy. A total of 45 patients in 5 years were operated for CRC malignant perforation with sigmoid colon (n = 17, 37.8%) and cecum (n = 13, 28.9%) being the most common sites of perforation. Perforation proximal to the tumor (diastatic perforation) was seen in 11 (24.4%) patients, while perforation at the tumor was seen in the remaining 34 (75.6%) patients. Sixteen (35.6%) patients had Stage IV disease during surgery, rest had Stages II and III disease. Hartmann's procedure and right hemicolectomy were most frequently performed in 17 (37.8%) and 15 (33.4%) patients, respectively. Eight (17.8%) patients died in the perioperative period, 12 (26.7%) required surgical intensive care unit care. The median length of stay was 10 (2–54) days. Thirty-seven (82.2%) patients survived overall. Defunctioning ileostomy was closed in all patients (n = 4) and only four patients with Hartmann's procedure. A total of 10 (41.7%) patients had disease recurrence. The median time to recurrence was 13 months (6–48 months). Factors such as site of perforation, diastatic perforation, age, gender, ASA score, and extent of peritonitis were all not associated with recurrence.[10]

With these two factors in mind, long-term steroid-dependent disease and perforation of malignant lesion of sigmoid, the patient should be offered restorative proctosigmoidectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Since the perforation was contained, IPAA can be contemplated in this patient. This case report is discussed to emphasis the importance of aggressive surgical treatment in long-term steroid-dependent disease and poor prognosis of perforated malignancy irrespective of pathological staging.


  Conclusion Top


Strict adherence to surveillance protocol is a must and aggressive surgical approach should be the norm in long-term steroid-dependent patients. Tumor perforation is a potential risk factor for early and unfavorable recurrences.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Eaden JA, Abrams KR, Mayberry JF. The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis. Gut 2001;48:526-35.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Itzkowitz SH, Present DH; Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Colon Cancer in IBD Study Group. Consensus conference: Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2005;11:314-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lakatos PL, Lakatos L. Risk for colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: Changes, causes and management strategies. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:3937-47.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rutter MD, Saunders BP, Wilkinson KH, Rumbles S, Schofield G, Kamm MA, et al. Thirty-year analysis of a colonoscopic surveillance program for neoplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2006;130:1030-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gaidos JK, Bickston SJ. How to optimize colon cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016;22:1219-30.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fedewa SA, Ahnen DJ, Meester RG, Barzi A, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:177-93.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Qiu X, Ma J, Wang K, Zhang H. Chemopreventive effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid on inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer and dysplasia: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Oncotarget 2017;8:1031-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Riddell R, Jain D. Lewin, Weinstein and Riddell's Gastrointestinal Pathology and its Clinical Implications. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lee IK, Sung NY, Lee YS, Lee SC, Kang WK, Cho HM, et al. The survival rate and prognostic factors in 26 perforated colorectal cancer patients. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007;22:467-73.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Tan KK, Hong CC, Zhang J, Liu JZ, Sim R. Surgery for perforated colorectal malignancy in an Asian population: An institution's experience over 5 years. Int J Colorectal Dis 2010;25:989-95.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Case Report
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed299    
    Printed33    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal