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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-15

Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus: A review of current perspectives


1 Institute of Neurosciences, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, 1 Critical Care, Max Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Critical Care, Max Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Pushpendra Nath Renjen
C-85, Anand Niketan, New Delhi - 110 021
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/am.am_7_20

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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a potentially reversible syndrome characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles (ventriculomegaly), cognitive impairment, gait apraxia, and urinary incontinence. A critical review of the current prospectives in the diagnosis and treatment of both idiopathic and secondary NPH has been done in our article. NPH is an important cause of potentially reversible dementia, frequent falls, and recurrent urinary infections in the elderly. The clinical and imaging features of NPH may be incomplete or nonspecific, posing a diagnostic challenge for medical doctors, and often requiring expert assessment to minimize unsuccessful surgical treatments. Recent advances resulting from the use of noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging methods for quantifying cerebral blood flow, in particular arterial spin-labeling, and the frequent association of NPH and obstructive sleep apnea, offer new avenues to understand and treat NPH.


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