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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 221-223

Biosensors applications in fighting COVID-19 pandemic


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Hoshiarpur Campus, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
4 Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
5 Department of Orthopaedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission21-Jun-2020
Date of Decision23-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication29-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Shashi Bahl
Department of Mechanical Engineering, I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Hoshiarpur Campus, Hoshiarpur - 146 001, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/am.am_56_20

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  Abstract 


Biosensors can measure nonpolar molecules, which is not possible by other conventional devices. These sensors provide high specificity and fast response time. During COVID-19, this technology has helped to identify the symptoms of the viral infection. It measures the respiration rate, heart rate, temperature, and any movement in the real time for COVID-19 patients. During any changes in the symptoms of the patient, this technology rapidly contacts and advice to the health-care service provider. It helps to monitor infected patients without any risk of contamination easily. We have identified seven significant applications of the biosensors for the COVID-19 pandemic. Tests of the COVID-19 virus can be carried out effectively by employing these biosensors more appropriately and productively. This technology has completely changed and revolted the health-care world to perform its intended functions in an ongoing situation. In the future, biosensors can offer better treatment of the patients in an epidemic and pandemic, more productively and effectively.

Keywords: Applications, biosensors, COVID-19, pandemic, virus


How to cite this article:
Bahl S, Javaid M, Bagha AK, Singh RP, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Suman R. Biosensors applications in fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Apollo Med 2020;17:221-3

How to cite this URL:
Bahl S, Javaid M, Bagha AK, Singh RP, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Suman R. Biosensors applications in fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Apollo Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 24];17:221-3. Available from: https://www.apollomedicine.org/text.asp?2020/17/3/221/291121




  Introduction Top


The systematic and smart contrivances, commonly known as Biosensors, are defined as the devices that transform biological-based signals or responses into an electrical wave or a signal that can further be developed or modified to reveal some meaningful form of outcome. Mostly these sensors are equipped with some transformation means and sensing structure. These have been well recognized in terms of their excellent sensitivity and selectivity conditions. Characteristically, a biosensor should be extremely précised, sovereign of somatic parameters, environmentally benign, reproducibility, cost-effective, and reusable.[1] The first biosensor was developed to measure the oxygen in the blood, by an American Biochemist Leland C. Clark Jr. The proper fabrication, development of biosensors, and its major constituents are materials, transforming contrivances, and inspection and checking approach requisites interdisciplinary exploration in biology, biotechnology, chemistry, and engineering domains. Based on the generations, there can be three different types of biosensors, as explored in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Types of biosensors based on generation

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Furthermore, the materials employed in the development of biosensors can also be categorized into three different classes based on their involved mechanisms (a) bioaffinity group (including nucleic acids and antibodies), (b) bio-catalytic group (comprising enzymes), and (c) microbe based (containing microorganisms). All the countries, including India, are fighting with the present COVID-19 pandemic and are desperately looking for a practical, cost-effective, and environmental-friendly solution to face the challenges emerging these days. Investigators in physical sciences and engineering are attempting to daze such challenges, grow new theories, describe new study problems, generate user-centered explanations, and edify ourselves and the overall civilians. This brief review has aimed to propose an awareness to employ biosensors to inspect the situation appropriately and make it healthier during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sustainability of coronavirus is different on different surfaces.[1] Some technologies have been reported to be very helpful in identifying and tracking infected patients.[2] The supply chain has been greatly affected by the spread of the COVID-19 virus.[3] Three-dimensional printing is an important technology for the production of different necessary items during these days.[4] Many diabetes patients are facing challenges due to the lockdown imposed.[5]


  Biosensor Top


A biosensor is a device that consists of a biological element (e.g., tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.,) that can recognize an analyte and is coupled to a transducer which generates a signal proportional to the concentration of the analyte. There are different biosensors available such as electrochemical biosensor, physical biosensor, optical biosensor, and wearable biosensor.[6] The main characteristics of biosensors are its stability, less cost, high sensitivity, and reproducibility. These biosensors are applicable in different fields such as frequent health-care checking, metabolites measurement, screening for sickness, insulin treatment, clinical psychotherapy, and the diagnosis of a disease.


  Significant Applications of Biosensor Technologies for Covid-19 Pandemic Top


A biosensor can hold a significant impact to detect and measure the COVID-19 virus in the air. It quickly addresses the challenges of biological barriers and technological limitations. This technology helps to measure how a virus can remain in air when it mostly spreads from person to person. It is also helpful for infection-related disease diagnosis. It automatically analyzes various tests conducted in the laboratories and cause of some infectious disease in the air. [Table 1] discusses the significant applications of biosensors for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Table 1: Significant applications of biosensors for COVID-19 pandemic

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The health-care facilities can utilize the data received from biosensors for the remote screening of a large population such as people being quarantined, patients being kept in care home facilities, and the people who are vulnerable and at a high degree of risk being in their home. It is suggested that the present biosensing strategies require their continuous upgradation to solve the increasing challenges in the diagnosis of viruses. As it is observed that, in the present scenario, the COVID-19 virus spreads globally from person to person, demanding the need to diagnose this kind of virus early.


  Conclusion Top


Biosensors fulfill an important and useful role in the challenging situation such as COVID-19, where the health-care facility providers are looking for some smart and innovative treatment or identifying a specific kind of devices for their patients. The biosensors provide such opportunities to tackle and confront the already raised issues and future challenges more conveniently and effectively. These technologies are useful for disease detection, positive environment provision, monitoring, toxins of defense interest, monitoring of delivered food quality, prosthetic devices, and medical discovery. Biosensors can make a huge impact in turning the present analytical methods into diagnostic strategies, by restructuring their sensing strategies, upgrading conventional biosensors using nanotechnology and biotechnology, and detecting different viruses. There are general applications in health-care checking, metabolite measurement, screening for sickness, insulin treatment, clinical psychotherapy, diagnosis of disease, drug improvement, and offense detection regarding COVID-19 disease.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.[16]



 
  References Top

1.
Suman R, Javaid M, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Bahl S, Nandan D. Sustainability of coronavirus on different surfaces. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2020;10:386-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Vaishya R, Bahl S, Singh RP. Letter to the editor in response to: Telemedicine for diabetes care in India during COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown period: Guidelines for physicians. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2020;14:687-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Iyengar KP, Vaishya R, Bahl S, Vaish A. Impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the supply chain in healthcare. Br J Healthc Manag 2020;26:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Iyengar K, Bahl S, Vaishya R, Vaish A. Challenges and solutions in meeting up the urgent requirement of ventilators for COVID-19 patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2020;14:499-501.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Jaly I, Iyengar K, Bahl S, Hughes T, Vaishya R. Redefining diabetic foot disease management service during COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2020;14:833-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Kawamura A, Miyata T. 4.2-Biosensors. In: Ebara MB, editor. William Andrew Publishing; 2016. p. 157-76.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Qiu G, Gai Z, Tao Y, Schmitt J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Wang J. Dual-functional plasmonic photothermal biosensors for highly accurate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detection. ACS Nano 2020;15:5268-77.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Giménez-Gómez P, Gutiérrez-Capitán M, Capdevila F, Puig-Pujol A, Fernández-Sánchez C, Jiménez-Jorquera C. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for l-lactate with long term stability. Anal Chim Acta 2016;905:126-33.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Guo L, Li Z, Chen H, Wu Y, Chen L, Song Z, et al. Colorimetric biosensor for the assay of paraoxon in environmental water samples based on the iodine-starch color reaction. Anal Chim Acta 2017;967:59-63.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Justino CI, Freitas AC, Pereira R, Duarte AC, Rocha Santos TA. Recent developments in recognition elements for chemical sensors and biosensors. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 2015;68:2-17.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Life Signals to Roll Out Biosensor Patch for COVID-19 Monitoring. NS Med Devices; 2020. Available from: https://www.nsmedicaldevices.com/news/lifesignals-biosensor-patch-covid-19/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 03].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Liu Y, Shen T, Hu L, Gong H, Chen C, Chen X, et al. Development of a thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymer resonance light scattering sensor for rapid and highly selective detection of hepatitis A virus in vitro. Sensors Actuators B Chem 2017;253:1188-93.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Javaid M, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Bahl S, Suman R, Vaish A. Industry 4.0 technologies and their applications in fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2020:14:419-22.  Back to cited text no. 16
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


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[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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