|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 275-276
Seema Singhal1, Chander Shekher2
1 Department of Pathology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Orthopedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||19-Nov-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||30-Dec-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||21-Dec-2020|
Department of Pathology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a type of chronic osteomyelitis characterized by collection of foamy macrophages admixed with mononuclear cells. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is characterized by the presence of histiocytes, foamy macrophages, activated plasma cells, and presence of suppurative foci and hemorrhage. It has been encountered in various tissues such as gallbladder, kidney, urinary bladder, fallopian tube, ovary, vagina, prostate, testis, epididymis, colon, and appendix. Very rarely, it can affect lungs, brain, or bone. Only three cases of XO have been described previously in the literature till date.
Keywords: Histiocytic, osteomyelitis, xanthogranulomatou
|How to cite this article:|
Singhal S, Shekher C. Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis. Apollo Med 2020;17:275-6
| Introduction|| |
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is characterized by the presence of histiocytes, foamy macrophages, activated plasma cells and presence of suppurative foci and hemorrhage.
| Case Report|| |
A 26-year-old male presented with complaints of pain and swelling middle of the left arm for 2 months.
On local examination, there was a small nontender prominence of 3.5 cm × 3 cm located in the upper and middle part of the left humerus.
Anteroposterior X-ray of the left humerus revealed the presence of bony sequestrum [Figure 1]a. Surrounding soft tissues were normal. Radiological findings were suggestive of osteomyelitis. Systemic examination was normal.
|Figure 1: (a) X-ray (anteroposterior view left humerus): Bony sequestrum, rarefaction of humerus shaft. (b) Sheets of foamy histiocytes, macrophages with interspersed foci of collection of neutrophils, hemorrhage, and plasma cells (H and E, ×200)|
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Alkaline phosphatase was elevated to levels of 400 IU/L (normal: 100–280 IU/L), and liver and renal function tests were within normal limits.
Core needle biopsy was done to ascertain the disease process. Tissue sections showed the presence of sheets of foamy histiocytes, macrophages with interspersed foci of collection of neutrophils, hemorrhage, and plasma cells [Figure 1]b.
| Discussion|| |
Chronic osteomyelitis develops in 15%–30% of cases. It occurs due to lack of treatment, inadequate antibiotic treatment, or incomplete surgical debridement of necrotic bone. Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a type of chronic osteomyelitis and may mimic malignancy radiologically. Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a type of chronic osteomyelitis characterized by collection of foamy macrophages admixed with mononuclear cells.
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation has been described in various tissues such as gallbladder, kidney, urinary bladder, fallopian tube, ovary, vagina, testis, epididymis, colon, and appendix.,, Rarely, it is also seen in the lungs, brain, and prostate. It is a great mimicker of malignancy on gross and radiological examination. Exact pathogenesis is unknown; however, defective lipid transport, immunological disorders, low-virulent infections, reactions to specific infectious agents, and lymphatic obstruction have been proposed as putative mechanisms. McVey and McMahon suggested that xanthogranulomatous inflammation is related to a long-standing or recurrent inflammatory process. With respect to the origin of foam cells, it is considered that the vast majority of foam cells are derived from monocytes/macrophages. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction of cell-mediated immunity may be implicated in the pathogenesis of XO.
This term was coined due to the similar histopathological picture in bone as seen in other organs.
Tissue pathology reveals the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. Only three cases have been described till date in the medical literature., The two cases described by Cozzutto were in patients in the first two decades of life and involved the first rib and the tibial epiphysis, respectively, whereas the third case described by Vankalakunti et al. was in a 50-year-old woman with involvement of ulna.
Our case was seen in a 26-year male with involvement of humerus.
The differential diagnoses include chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, xanthoma, infiltrative storage disorder, malakoplakia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, fibrohistiocytic tumor, Erdheim–Chester disease, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.,,,
In this case, the presence of sheets of foamy macrophages, macrophages with interspersed foci of collection of neutrophils, hemorrhage, and plasma cells on tissue sections confirmed the diagnosis.
| Conclusion|| |
This case is primarily presented due to its rarity. XO has been sparingly reported in the literature. XO may simulate a tumor, either primary or secondary, both on radiology and gross examination. A bone biopsy as done in this case might prevent unnecessary surgery/amputation and hence imparting appropriate treatment.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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